Who owns antiquity

From the beginning of time, groups of people had to decide whether to let their members trade resources and the fruits of their efforts freely or whether to distribute them in alternative ways in which the group set up rules for use and distribution of resources and output. Governments ranged from contractual states to predatory states based on the extent to which the participants negotiated the rules or a subset imposed their rules on others. Within the last years more governments have loosened the reins and given people more economic freedom to produce and trade more freely in markets. Even in those countries the interactions between markets and governments have been fluid as the interest groups in society have worked through the political process to provide more social insurance to protect against risk, established regulations, adjusted defense spending, solve new problems, or establish new rules that favor their position.

Who owns antiquity

War[ edit ] By the rules of war of the period, the victor possessed absolute rights over the vanquished, whether they were soldiers or not. Thucydides recalls that 7, inhabitants of Hyccara in Sicily were taken prisoner by Nicias and sold for talents in the neighbouring village of Catania.

The enslavement of cities was also a controversial practice. Cassanderin BC, restored Thebes. Whenever ransom was not paid or not warranted, captives would be sold to a trafficker. Outside of Greece, this was also the case with IllyriansPhoeniciansand Etruscans.

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During the Hellenistic periodCilicians and the mountain peoples from the coasts of Anatolia could also be added to the list. Strabo explains the popularity of the practice among the Cilicians by its profitability; Delosnot far away, allowed for "moving myriad slaves daily".

The fragmentary list of slaves confiscated from the property of the mutilators of the Hermai mentions 32 slaves whose origins have been ascertained: The principal centres of the slave trade appear to have been EphesusByzantiumand even faraway Tanais at the mouth of the Don.

Some "barbarian" slaves were victims of war or localised piracy, but others were sold by their parents. Firstly, certain nationalities are consistently and significantly represented in the slave population, such as the corps of Scythian archers employed by Athens as a police force—originallybut eventually nearly a thousand.

The price of slaves varied in accordance with their ability. Xenophon valued a Laurion miner at drachmas ; [43] while a workman at major works was paid one drachma per day. Demosthenes' father's cutlers were valued at to drachmas each. A tax on sale revenues was levied by the market cities. For instance, a large helot market was organized during the festivities at the temple of Apollo at Actium.

The Acarnanian League, which was in charge of the logistics, received half of the tax proceeds, the other half going to the city of Anactorion, of which Actium was a part.

On the other hand, there were many female domestic slaves.

John D. Rockerduck View Citation summary Whether antiquities should be returned to the countries where they were found is one of the most urgent and controversial issues in the art world today, and it has pitted museums, private collectors, and dealers against source countries, archaeologists, and academics. Maintaining that the acquisition of undocumented antiquities by museums encourages the looting of archaeological sites, countries such as Italy, Greece, Egypt, Turkey, and China have claimed ancient artifacts as state property, called for their return from museums around the world, and passed laws against their future export.

The example of African slaves in the American South on the other hand demonstrates that slave populations can multiply. They were, for example, entrusted to take the children to school; they were " pedagogues " in the first sense of the term.

There was a multitude of categories, ranging from free citizen to chattel slave, and including Penestae or helotsdisenfranchised citizens, freedmen, bastards, and metics.

Moses Finley proposed a set of criteria for different degrees of enslavement: Possibility of social mobility manumission or emancipation, access to citizen rights Religious rights and obligations Athenian slaves[ edit ] Funerary loutrophoros ; on the right a bearded slave carries his master's shield and helm, — BC, National Archaeological Museum of Athens Athenian slaves were the property of their master or of the statewho could dispose of them as he saw fit.

He could give, sell, rent, or bequeath them. A slave could have a spouse and children, but the slave family was not recognized by the state, and the master could scatter the family members at any time. A famous example of a trusty slave was Themistocles 's Persian slave Sicinnus the counterpart of Ephialtes of Trachiswho, despite his Persian origin, betrayed Xerxes and helped Athenians in the Battle of Salamis.

Who owns antiquity

Despite torture in trials, the Athenian slave was protected in an indirect way: A newly-bought slave was welcomed with nuts and fruits, just like a newly-wed wife.

The slaves shared the gods of their masters and could keep their own religious customs if any. Athens also had a law forbidding the striking of slaves: It astonished other Greeks that Athenians tolerated back-chat from slaves.

For example, a slave could not engage free boys in pederastic relationships "A slave shall not be the lover of a free boy nor follow after him, or else he shall receive fifty blows of the public lash.

Both laws are attributed to Solon. The sons of vanquished foes would be enslaved and often forced to work in male brothels, as in the case of Phaedo of Eliswho at the request of Socrates was bought and freed from such an enterprise by the philosopher's rich friends.

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Slavery was a common practice in ancient Greece, as in other societies of the iridis-photo-restoration.com Ancient Greek writers (including, most notably, Aristotle) considered slavery natural and even iridis-photo-restoration.com paradigm was notably questioned in Socratic dialogues; the Stoics produced the first recorded condemnation of slavery..

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Whether antiquities should be returned to the countries where they were found is one of the most urgent and controversial issues in the art world today, and it has pitted museums, private collectors, and dealers against source countries, archaeologists, and academics.

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