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Across the two days of training, I cover 16 separate discrete modules ranging from SQL injection to password cracking to enumeration risks, basically all the highest priority security bits modern developers need to be thinking about. I also cover how to inspect, intercept and control API requests between rich client apps such as those you find on a modern smart phone and the services running on the back end server.
I subsequently discovered that friend and fellow security researcher Scott Helme also has a LEAF so we recorded the following video to demonstrate the problem.
Following is a complete walkthrough of the discovery process, how vehicles in other countries can also be controlled and a full disclosure timeline of my discussions with Nissan.
This takes a few minutes to setup and effectively what it means is that he can now observe how the mobile app talks to the online services. Jan then fires up the NissanConnect EV app: In other words, he was accessing the API anonymously. So Jan kept looking. He found he could check the status of the climate control using this request: This is reflected within the app on this screen: But then he tried turning it on and observed this request: This time, personal information about Jan was returned, namely his user ID which was a variation of his actual name.
The VIN passed in the request also came back in the response and a result key was returned. He then turned the climate control off and watched as the app issued this request: Jan checked them by loading them up in Chrome as well and sure enough, the response was returned just fine.
The VIN above differed merely by the last 5 digits. We proxied Chrome through Burp then issued the battery status request again: We then sent it over to the Intruder feature and added one position for payload insertion: Our test simply kept the range constrained between known numbers for the sake of time.
This gave us the ability to issue requests one after the other, each differing only by a unique VIN in the payload column. We started Burp issuing the requests: The subsequent responses with the randomised VINs mostly returned bytes and the response you see in the screen above.
Our suspicion that the VIN was the only identifier required was confirmed and it became clear that there was a complete lack of auth on the service. Anyone could potentially enumerate VINs and control the physical function of any vehicles that responded.
I reported it to Nissan the day after we discovered this I wanted Jan to provide me with more information firstyet as of today — 32 days later — the issue remains unresolved.
It started out like this: I read your Vtech article and though that you would be well placed to appreciate this. Im a Nissan Leaf owner and I found out that Nissan security is pretty abismal. To add insult to injury those action are from simple http Get request. Browsing through the discussion courtesy of Google translate, clearly people were not happy with the Nissan app.
For hard-core, the following information: Create bookmarks with these 2 https: In all this, it works for me without being authenticated, which is very surprising, and not safe at all, this means that anyone can act on any vehicle, provided it knows the VIN in more is it not written down the visible windshield everyone?
Looks like the authentication uses has get the VIN in the user profile. There are always local idiosyncrasies to be considered particularly in the auto industrybut there appears to be very little reuse across Canada and Norway in terms of how the API is implemented. The person who reported the Canadian finding to me finished up by saying this: My hypothesis on this is that it was bound to surface due to the poor quality of the app, the more tech savvy "with free time" users will thinker with broken things to get them working for them.
The fail was probably discovered soon after the app change and multiple times but by people that didn't fully appreciate the greater implication or by people like me that didn't know what to do with that knowledge.
His first sentence is spot on — the ease of discovery of this risk is high as is evidenced by three separate parties already finding it independently my Norwegian student, the Canadian follower and the folks in the forum.New Criticism.
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