Medical use[ edit ] Aspirin is used in the treatment of a number of conditions, including fever, pain, rheumatic feverand inflammatory diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritispericarditisand Kawasaki disease. Secondary headaches, meaning those caused by another disorder or trauma, should be promptly treated by a medical provider.
Aspirin, acetylsalicylic acid, is a familiar drug, used for relieving cold and flu symptoms, fevers, and general aches and pains in the body, and, as made clear by its chemical formula, contains salicin — a chemical found in willow bark.
In the following experiment, Aspirin was synthesized and analyzed in a laboratory setting in order to recognize the chemical process behind a common drug like aspirin and to relate it to the conceptual study of organic chemistry.
The initial step of the experimental process was the synthesis of Aspirin, which required the reaction of salicylic acid, acetic anhydride, and phosphoric acid to produce aspirin and acetic acid. This reaction is represented visually below: As shown in the above reaction, phosphoric acid, H3PO4 acts as a catalyst in the initial mixture of the reactants in order to speed up the reaction.
After aspirin synthesis was complete, the aspirin was analyzed using both IR and NMR spectrometers in order to determine the hydrogen atoms and organic functional groups present in the synthesized aspirin and to verify the overall identity of the aspirin.
To begin the experiment, 2.
Salicylic acid was a white, chalky powder; acetic anhydride a clear, colorless liquid; and phosphoric acid a clear, yellow-tinted liquid. The final mixture, a clear, colorless liquid, was stirred occasionally and the temperature of the water was monitored.
After 15 minutes of maintained heat, the flask was removed from the water and 2 mL of DI water was added, producing an aromatic vapor. After the vapor dissipated, a second volume of DI water, 20 mL, was added. The flask was then scratched on the bottom and placed in an ice bath to encourage crystallization.
While the mixture in the flask cooled, a vacuum filtration system was created, and once crystallization occurred, the mixture was poured through the system so as to pull the liquid in the mixture through to the flask, leaving white, powdery crystals on the filter paper.
The crystals were then washed three times with the vacuum using 5 mL amounts of DI water. After the crystals were completely dry, the beaker was weighed a second time, including the crystals, in order to obtain the actual yield of synthesized aspirin: This value was used, along with the theoretical yield value, to calculate the percent yield of the synthesized aspirin: Caution — acetic anhydride, salicylic acid, and phosphoric acid are all toxic chemicals and should not come into contact with the skin.
CDCl3, used later for spectroscopy, is also a toxic chemical. Next, NaOH was used to titrate commercial aspirin tablets — one tablet of aspirin, weighing mg, was dissolved in methanol, and then 10 mL of DI water and 4 drops of phenolphthalein indicator were added.
This mixture was generated a total of three times, so as to have three separate flasks with identical mixtures for three trials. The starting reading of NaOH was recorded. Titration was then performed in three trials, each by adding NaOH to the mixture in the flask until the mixture turned light pink and maintained this color for 15 seconds.
The end point reading of NaOH was recorded. To finish the experiment, three titration trials were performed using the synthesized aspirin. DI water and four drops of phenolphthalein were added, and the same process of titration was used.
All three synthesized aspirin titrations yielded a light pink color for 15 seconds, thus each trial was successful and used in calculations. The synthesized aspirin was also used in two different types of spectroscopy: NMR was the first to be tested: The trial results of the commercial aspirin titrations are listed below:The Preparation of Aspirin, the Recrystallisation of Aspirin and the Melting Point Determination of Aspirin.
Results At the end of the experiment, the result gotten should be a result of 40 – 60 % yield and a melting point that is around the theoretical melting point of aspirin, which is Â°C – Â°C. Aspirin has been used as a medicine by the ancient Greeks and the pharaohs of Egypt.
It is effective in reducing pain (it is an analgesic), reducing inflammation (anti-inflammatory), reducing fever (antipyretic), and thinning blood (anti-coagulant). Aspirin, the ubiquitous pain reliever, goes by the chemical name acetylsalicylic acid.
One of the compounds used in the synthesis of aspirin is salicylic acid, which is itself a pain reliever that was known to many ancient cultures, including the Native Americans who extracted it from. This may be the main reason why salicylic acid is treated with acetic anhydride along with acetic acid or with acetic anhydride alone in stead of acetic acid alone in preparation of aspirin by acid catalyzed esterification reaction.
Aspirin for primary prevention of cardiovascular events in people with diabetes: a position statement of the American Diabetes Association, a scientific statement of the American Heart Association, and an expert consensus document of the American College of Cardiology Foundation.
Circulation. Dec 18, · Thus, doctors will have full prescribing information on aspirin and the assurance that aspirin is a safe and effective treatment for heart attacks, .