Estimates of natural resource harvests often inform rural conservation and development strategies. Received 29 July Retrospective household surveys remain one of the most commonly employed methods for estimating Received in revised form 26 January harvests. Pair-wise comparisons of estimates from household surveys versus diary records were performed Accepted 31 January for household harvests in the Brazilian Amazon.
Atavisms Primarily due to intense medical interest, humans are one of the best characterized species and many developmental anomalies are known. There are several human atavisms that reflect our common genetic heritage with other mammals.
One of the most striking is the existence of the rare "true human tail" also variously known as "coccygeal process," "coccygeal projection," "caudal appendage," and "vestigial tail".
More than cases of human tails have been reported in the medical literature. Less than one third of the well-documented cases are what are medically known as "pseudo-tails" Dao and Netsky ; Dubrow et al.
Pseudo-tails are not true tails; they are simply lesions of various types coincidentally found in the caudal region of newborns, often associated with the spinal column, coccyx, and various malformations.
In contrast, the true atavistic tail of humans develops from the most distal end of the embryonic tail found in the developing human fetus see Figure 2. The true human tail is characterized by a complex arrangement of adipose and connective tissue, central bundles of longitudinally arranged striated muscle in the core, blood vessels, nerve fibres, nerve ganglion cells, and specialized pressure sensing nerve organs Vater-Pacini corpuscles.
It is covered by normal skin, replete with hair follicles, sweat glands, and sebaceous glands Dao and Netsky ; Dubrow et al. True human tails range in length from about one inch to over 5 inches long on a newborn babyand they can move and contract Baruchin et al. Although human tails usually lack skeletal structures some medical articles have claimed that true tails never have vertebraeseveral human tails have also been found with cartilage and up to five, well-developed, articulating vertebrae see Figure 2.
However, caudal vertebrae are not a necessary component of mammalian tails; contrary to what is frequently reported in the medical literature, there is at least one known example of a primate tail which lacks vertebrae, as found in the rudimentary two-inch-long tail of Macaca sylvanus the "Barbary ape" Hillp.
True human tails are rarely inherited, though several familial cases are known Dao and Netsky ; Ikpeze and Onuigbo ; Standfast ; Touraine As with other atavistic structures, human tails are most likely the result of either a somatic or germline mutation that reactivates an underlying developmental pathway which has been retained in the human genome Dao and Netsky ; Hall ; Hall It should be noted here that the existence of true human tails is unfortunately quite shocking for many religiously motivated anti-evolutionists, such as Duane Gish, who has written an often-quoted article entitled "Evolution and the human tail" Gish ; see also Menton ; ReMine Solely based on the particulars of a single case study Ledleythese authors have erroneously concluded that atavistic human tails are "nothing more than anomalous malformations not traceable to any imaginary ancestral state" Gish However, their arguments are clearly directed against pseudo-tails, not true tails, since true human tails are complex structures which have muscle, blood vessels, occasional vertebrae and cartilage Bar-Maor et al.
Furthermore, Gish, Menton, and ReMine all argue that human vestigial tails are not true tails if they lack vertebrae - an erroneous claim since M. Draw your own conclusionsMenton, Sara (University of Oregon, A Case Study of the Consequences of Current Family Planning Practices in China Hou, Xueyuan, All of Scholars' Bank Communities & Collections By Issue Date Authors Titles Subjects This Collection By Issue Date Authors Titles Subjects.
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The township is split into the west and east bank by the Jukskei River; the west bank is completely developed whereas the east bank is undeveloped. The west bank, which is princi-pally the focus of this study covers a total surface area of about ha.
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