By Edward Manson, VI. By Herbert Keen IX. Remittances should be made by bank draft or check, or by post-office money-order, if possible. If neither of these can be procured, the money should be sent in a registered letter.
Activity psychological physiological physical physiological psychologicals stage linguistic production transmission perception linguistic Phonetics articulatory phonetics acoustic phonetics auditory phonetics In this table we can see how phonetics is the study of all possible speech sounds.
This is not the most important task for linguist, however. In this activity he is helped by phonology. Phonology is continually loking beneath th surface of speech to determine its underlying regularities. It is not interested in sounds but in phonemes, ie. Smallest contrastive phonological units which can produce a difference in meaning.
The study of speech is therefore, the field of both Phonetics and Phonology. Myths and legends of the supernatural shroud the early history of writing. One point, at least, is fairly clear.
It now seems most likely that writing systems evolved independently of each other at different times in several parts of the world —in Mesopotamia, China There is nothing to support a theory of common origin. Non-phonological systems do not show a clear relationship between the symbols and the sounds of the language.
They include the pictographic, ideographic, cuneiform and egyptian hieroglyphic and logographic. In the pictographic system, the graphemes or pictographs or pictograms provide a recognizable picture of entities as they exist in the world. Ideograms or ideographs have an abstract or conventional meaning, no longer displaying a clear pictorial link whith external reality.
The cuneiform method of writing dates from the 4 th. Millennium BC, and was used to express both non-phonological and phonological writing systems. Egyptian hieroglyphic developed about BC.
It is a mixture of ideograms, phonograms and determinative symbols. Logographic writing systems are those where the graphemes represent words. The best known case is Chinese and Japanese kanji. The symbols are variously referred to as logographs, logograms or characters. Phonological systems do show a clear relationship between the symbols and the sounds of language.
We can distinguish syllabic and alphabetic systems. In a system of syllabic writing, each grapheme corresponds to a spoken syllable, usually a consonant-vowel pair. This system can be seen in Japanese Kataka. Alphabetic writing establishes a direct correspondence between graphemes and morphemes.
This makes it the most economic and adaptable of all the writing systems. In a perfectly regular sustem there is one grapheme for each morpheme. However, most alphabets in present day use fail to meet this criterion.In the train was a car- load of soldiers in white cotton uniform a precaution against robbers which the government takes on no other railway in the republic.
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