Comparative study of online and offline

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Comparative study of online and offline

Personal mall or street intercept survey Hybrids of the above. Research designs[ edit ] There are several different designs, or overall structures, that can be used in survey research. The three general types are cross-sectional, successive independent samples, and longitudinal studies.

Successive independent samples studies[ edit ] A successive independent samples design draws multiple random samples from a population at one or more times.

Such studies cannot, therefore, identify the causes of change over time necessarily. For successive independent samples designs to be effective, the samples must be drawn from the same population, and must be equally representative of it.

If the samples are not comparable, the changes between samples may be due to demographic characteristics rather than time. In addition, the questions must be asked in the same way so that responses can be compared directly.

Comparative study of online and offline

Longitudinal studies[ edit ] Longitudinal studies take measure of the same random sample at multiple time points. Longitudinal studies are the easiest way to assess the effect of a naturally occurring event, such as divorce that cannot be tested experimentally.

However, longitudinal studies are both expensive and difficult to do. This attrition of participants is not random, so samples can become less representative with successive assessments. To account for this, a researcher can compare the respondents who left the survey to those that did not, to see if they are statistically different populations.

Respondents may also try to be self-consistent in spite of changes to survey answers. A basic questionaire in Thai language Questionnaires are the most commonly used tool in survey research.

However, the results of a particular survey are worthless if the questionnaire is written inadequately.

Comparative study of online and offline

Nonresponse reduction[ edit ] The following ways have been recommended for reducing nonresponse [5] in telephone and face-to-face surveys: A short letter is sent in advance to inform the sampled respondents about the upcoming survey.

The style of the letter should be personalized but not overdone. First, it announces that a phone call will be made, or an interviewer wants to make an appointment to do the survey face-to-face. Second, the research topic will be described.

Last, it allows both an expression of the surveyor's appreciation of cooperation and an opening to ask questions on the survey. The interviewers are thoroughly trained in how to ask respondents questions, how to work with computers and making schedules for callbacks to respondents who were not reached.

The interviewer should always start with a short introduction about him or herself. Also it can be useful to make clear that you are not selling anything: The questions asked must be clear, non-offensive and easy to respond to for the subjects under study.

Brevity is also often cited as increasing response rate.

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A literature review found mixed evidence to support this claim for both written and verbal surveys, concluding that other factors may often be more important.

Main interviewer traits that have been demonstrated to influence survey responses are race, [11] gender, [12] and relative body weight BMI. Hence, race of interviewer has been shown to affect responses to measures regarding racial attitudes, [14] interviewer sex responses to questions involving gender issues, [15] and interviewer BMI answers to eating and dieting-related questions.

The explanation typically provided for interviewer effects is social desirability bias: Interviewer effects are one example survey response effects.Comparative Study of Offline Signature Verification Techniques Devshri Satyarthi1, Y.P.S. Maravi2, Poonam Sharma3, and other is offline signature verification.

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