Regardless of the underpinning curriculum model, all curriculum designs endeavor to address four curriculum components:
Although teaching and learning have similar goals, teaching is not a guarantee that learning has or is taking place. Individual intelligence, motivation, readiness to learn, prior learning, learning needs, learning styles, and aptitude are all essential to the learning process.
An important factor to consider in instructional design is whether learning will be structured on short- long- or life-long learning.
Learning is a constant. People are constantly learning skills, content, competencies, and behaviors that add value and meaning to their lives. Instruction occurs when learning is structured by a learning facilitator in order to produce specific outcomes. The learning facilitator faces a challenge that can be successful with the direction of the Holy Spirit, knowledge of the learner, understanding of the learning process, and a mastery of subject-content.
The concept of instruction, which has been traditionally "teacher-" or "content-" centered, is concerned with "learning" structures, processes, systems, environment, content, application, and behavior.
The nature of the term instruction depends on the educator's philosophical and theoretical orientation. Three educational theories that have influenced education during the twentieth century were behaviorism, cognitive, and humanism models. Behaviorism was championed by Thorndike, Watson, and Skinner, and dominated education over the first half of the twentieth century.
Behaviorism was based on empirical scientific research. Behavioral learning models focused on observable behavior, reinforcement of behavior, and the effect of the environment on learning. Cognitive theory, which was championed by Piaget and Gardner, was concerned with the relationship of the learner and the environment, problem-solving, heredity, and how learning is processed.
Humanistic theory, which was promoted by Maslow and Rogers, viewed learning from the standpoint of human growth and the development of the whole person.
Humanistic theory was derived from Gestalt psychology. An emerging theory of education is andragogy, or adult learning. Andragogy focuses on self-direction, life-long learning, problem-solving, critical thinking, and the uniqueness of the adult learner Knowles, How is instruction different than instructional design?
Instruction can be contrasted from curriculum design in several ways. First, instruction focuses on the process of content delivery or "how content is communicated. Third, instruction focuses on the communicative, social, and interactive nature of learning while curriculum design focuses on the development of higher cognitive skills and the application of content.
It should be noted that the term method, which addresses "how" content is delivered, is often linked to cultural practices, tradition, and teacher-competencies while curriculum design procedures are primarily rooted in empirically substantiated principles.
A curriculum may focus on personal development, training, or specific skills. The concept of curriculum is often used synonymously with the term program, or as the subject-content for a concentration or course within an academic concentration.
The Instructional Design Specialist The task of the instructional design specialist can be broken down into the following categories: Ideally, the instructional design specialist should work closely with a subject matter expert SMEa technology advisor, and the course instructor.
The instructional design specialist can optimize his or her product by working as a part of an academic team that focuses on the uniqueness of the learner within a context.
The instructional design specialist may also work with the learning facilitator and student to negotiate learning contracts Knowles, Learning contracts are collaborative contracts with individual or groups of learners with a specified context.
Process of Instructional Design According to Kem, et al.
The five primary factors to consider in ID include the learner, methodology, objectives, assessment, and the learning context. In the pre-ID phase, consideration should be made concerning the learners thinking orientation, e. In highly technological societies learners tend to be adapted to assimilating a large volume of information in a short time period and to comprehend multiple concepts, e.
Learners who live in non-technological regions may not have developed skills to assimilate a large amount of content over a short period or to comprehend more than two or three concepts at once. These factors should be considered in the design of instruction within cross-cultural contexts.
Kemp relates nine elements in an elliptical instructional design process. Although instruction design normally begins at the course development stage, the instructional designer could begin the design process with any element depending on the need and instructional paradigm.
The steps are as follows: It should be noted that Kemp et al. Instruction and instructional design should be concerned with both content and the learning process. A consensus of educators concur that there is no "ideal" way to instruct, design instruction, or to learn.
This is why the instructor, instructional design specialist, subject-matter specialist and instructional technologist should focus on the uniqueness of the learner sthe learning context, and instructional resources.
In some cases, a fifth individual or "evaluator" may be incorporated into the instruction design team.• the "hidden curriculum," which refers to the kinds of learnings children derive from the very nature and organizational design of the public .
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course overview. 1 Introduction to the eBook 2 Context of Higher Education 3 Needs Analysis and Educational The language of curriculum design can be confusing and care is there is a growing need to design the curriculum for the needs of a diverse student population.
In parallel with this growing.
Introduction. Curriculum design (also curriculum organization) refers to the ways in which we arrange the curriculum components. Regardless of the underpinning curriculum model, all curriculum designs endeavor to address four curriculum components: Why do we initiate instruction or aims?