The introduction of the camel, which preceded Muslims and Islam by several centuries, brought about a gradual change in trade, and for the first time, the extensive gold, ivory trade, and salt resources of the region could be sent north and east to population centers in North Africa, the Middle East and Europe in exchange for manufactured goods.
Mali Empire circa The Sahelian kingdoms were a series of medieval empires centred on the sahelthe area of grasslands south of the Sahara.
The first major state to rise in this region was the Ghana Empire Wagadu. The name Ghana, often used by historians, was the regnal title given to the ruler of the Wagadu empire. Ghana dominated the region between about and Smaller states in the region at this time included Takrur to the west, the Malinke kingdom of Mali to the south, and the Songhai Empire centred on Gao to the east.
When Ghana collapsed in the face of invasion from the Almoravidsa series of brief kingdoms followed, notably that of the Sosso Susu ; afterthe Mali Empire rose to dominate the region. Located on the Niger African kingdoms and empires to the west of Ghana in what is today Niger and Maliit reached its peak in the s, but had lost control of a number of vassal states by The most powerful of these states was the Songhai Empirewhich expanded rapidly beginning with king Sonni Ali in the s.
Byit had risen to stretch from Cameroon to the Maghrebthe largest state in African history. It too was quite short-lived and collapsed in as a result of Moroccan musketry.
Far to the east, on Lake Chadthe state of Kanem-Bornufounded as Kanem in the 9th century, now rose to greater preeminence in the central Sahel region. To their west, the loosely united Hausa city-states became dominant. These two states coexisted uneasily, but were quite stable.
Inthe Sokoto Caliphate rose and conquered the Hausa, creating a more centralized state.
It and Kanem-Bornu would continue to exist until the arrival of Europeans, when both states would fall and the region would be divided between France and Great Britain.
Jolof Empire — Empires of 15th—19th century Africa[ edit ] From the 15th century until the final Scramble for Africa in the late 19th century a number of empires were also established south of the Sahel, especially in West Africa.
History of West Africa The West African empires of this period peaked in power in the late 18th century, paralleling the peak of the Atlantic slave trade. These empires implemented a culture of permanent warfare in order to generate the required numbers of captives required to satisfy the demand for slaves by the European colonies.
With the gradual abolition of slavery in the European colonial empires during the 19th century, slave trade again became less lucrative and the West African empires entered a period of decline, and mostly collapsed by the end of the 19th century.
Beginning some time around BC, it was largely concentrated in what is now Nigeria but produced some of the first sub-Saharan iron smelting and terracotta architecture. Mysteriously died out around AD. The Kingdom of Nri — was the West African medieval state of the Nri-Igboa subgroup of the Igbo peopleand is the oldest kingdom in Nigeria.
The Kingdom of Nri was unusual in the history of world government in that its leader exercised no military power over his subjects.Welcome to Age of Empires II HD: The African Kingdoms; the second new official expansion for the Age of Empires II universe in over 16 years. Challenge friends with four additional civilizations, new units, ships and technologies.9/10().
African empires is an umbrella term used in African studies to refer to a number of pre-colonial African kingdoms in Africa with multinational structures incorporating various populations and polities into a single entity, usually through conquest.
West African Kingdoms; West African Kingdoms. History map of African kingdoms. Ghana Empire From the early 15th to the late 16th century, Songhai was one of the largest Islamic empires in history. This empire bore the same name as its leading ethnic group, the Songhai.
Its capital was the city of Gao, where a Songhai state had existed. History Link 's African Empires Page connects you to the best of Art, Daily Life, Maps, Pictures, and Research on Africa. Comparison. Vansina () discusses the classification of Sub-Saharan African kingdoms, mostly of Central, South and East Africa, with some additional data on West African (Sahelian) kingdoms distinguishing five types, by decreasing centralization of power.
despotic kingdoms: kingdoms where the king controls the internal and external affairs directly.
African empires is an umbrella term used in African studies to refer to a number of pre-colonial African kingdoms in Africa with multinational structures incorporating various populations and polities into a single entity, usually through conquest.. Listed below are known African empires .